# modernize-loop-convert¶

This check converts for(...; ...; ...) loops to use the new range-based loops in C++11.

Three kinds of loops can be converted:

• Loops over statically allocated arrays.
• Loops over containers, using iterators.
• Loops over array-like containers, using operator[] and at().

## MinConfidence option¶

### risky¶

In loops where the container expression is more complex than just a reference to a declared expression (a variable, function, enum, etc.), and some part of it appears elsewhere in the loop, we lower our confidence in the transformation due to the increased risk of changing semantics. Transformations for these loops are marked as risky, and thus will only be converted if the minimum required confidence level is set to risky.

int arr[10][20];
int l = 5;

for (int j = 0; j < 20; ++j)
int k = arr[l][j] + l; // using l outside arr[l] is considered risky

for (int i = 0; i < obj.getVector().size(); ++i)
obj.foo(10); // using 'obj' is considered risky


See Range-based loops evaluate end() only once for an example of an incorrect transformation when the minimum required confidence level is set to risky.

### reasonable (Default)¶

If a loop calls .end() or .size() after each iteration, the transformation for that loop is marked as reasonable, and thus will be converted if the required confidence level is set to reasonable (default) or lower.

// using size() is considered reasonable
for (int i = 0; i < container.size(); ++i)
cout << container[i];


### safe¶

Any other loops that do not match the above criteria to be marked as risky or reasonable are marked safe, and thus will be converted if the required confidence level is set to safe or lower.

int arr[] = {1,2,3};

for (int i = 0; i < 3; ++i)
cout << arr[i];


## Example¶

Original:

const int N = 5;
int arr[] = {1,2,3,4,5};
vector<int> v;
v.push_back(1);
v.push_back(2);
v.push_back(3);

// safe conversion
for (int i = 0; i < N; ++i)
cout << arr[i];

// reasonable conversion
for (vector<int>::iterator it = v.begin(); it != v.end(); ++it)
cout << *it;

// reasonable conversion
for (int i = 0; i < v.size(); ++i)
cout << v[i];


After applying the check with minimum confidence level set to reasonable (default):

const int N = 5;
int arr[] = {1,2,3,4,5};
vector<int> v;
v.push_back(1);
v.push_back(2);
v.push_back(3);

// safe conversion
for (auto & elem : arr)
cout << elem;

// reasonable conversion
for (auto & elem : v)
cout << elem;

// reasonable conversion
for (auto & elem : v)
cout << elem;


## Limitations¶

There are certain situations where the tool may erroneously perform transformations that remove information and change semantics. Users of the tool should be aware of the behaviour and limitations of the check outlined by the cases below.

Comments inside the original loop header are ignored and deleted when transformed.

for (int i = 0; i < N; /* This will be deleted */ ++i) { }


### Range-based loops evaluate end() only once¶

The C++11 range-based for loop calls .end() only once during the initialization of the loop. If in the original loop .end() is called after each iteration the semantics of the transformed loop may differ.

// The following is semantically equivalent to the C++11 range-based for loop,
// therefore the semantics of the header will not change.
for (iterator it = container.begin(), e = container.end(); it != e; ++it) { }

// Instead of calling .end() after each iteration, this loop will be
// transformed to call .end() only once during the initialization of the loop,
// which may affect semantics.
for (iterator it = container.begin(); it != container.end(); ++it) { }


As explained above, calling member functions of the container in the body of the loop is considered risky. If the called member function modifies the container the semantics of the converted loop will differ due to .end() being called only once.

bool flag = false;
for (vector<T>::iterator it = vec.begin(); it != vec.end(); ++it) {
// Add a copy of the first element to the end of the vector.
if (!flag) {
// This line makes this transformation 'risky'.
vec.push_back(*it);
flag = true;
}
cout << *it;
}


The original code above prints out the contents of the container including the newly added element while the converted loop, shown below, will only print the original contents and not the newly added element.

bool flag = false;
for (auto & elem : vec) {
// Add a copy of the first element to the end of the vector.
if (!flag) {
// This line makes this transformation 'risky'
vec.push_back(elem);
flag = true;
}
cout << elem;
}


Semantics will also be affected if .end() has side effects. For example, in the case where calls to .end() are logged the semantics will change in the transformed loop if .end() was originally called after each iteration.

iterator end() {
num_of_end_calls++;
return container.end();
}


### Overloaded operator->() with side effects¶

Similarly, if operator->() was overloaded to have side effects, such as logging, the semantics will change. If the iterator’s operator->() was used in the original loop it will be replaced with <container element>.<member> instead due to the implicit dereference as part of the range-based for loop. Therefore any side effect of the overloaded operator->() will no longer be performed.

for (iterator it = c.begin(); it != c.end(); ++it) {
it->func(); // Using operator->()
}
// Will be transformed to:
for (auto & elem : c) {
elem.func(); // No longer using operator->()
}


### Pointers and references to containers¶

While most of the check’s risk analysis is dedicated to determining whether the iterator or container was modified within the loop, it is possible to circumvent the analysis by accessing and modifying the container through a pointer or reference.

If the container were directly used instead of using the pointer or reference the following transformation would have only been applied at the risky level since calling a member function of the container is considered risky. The check cannot identify expressions associated with the container that are different than the one used in the loop header, therefore the transformation below ends up being performed at the safe level.

vector<int> vec;

vector<int> *ptr = &vec;
vector<int> &ref = vec;

for (vector<int>::iterator it = vec.begin(), e = vec.end(); it != e; ++it) {
if (!flag) {
// Accessing and modifying the container is considered risky, but the risk
// level is not raised here.
ptr->push_back(*it);
ref.push_back(*it);
flag = true;
}
}